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Large networks Web datasets Other resources. Open positions. Open research positions in SNAP group are available at undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral levels. Influence of crop sequence, nitrogen fertilizer and herbicides on weed seed populations in sugar beet fields. Gross , K. A new method for estimating seed numbers in the soil. Guldan , S. Dry-matter and nitrogen yields of legumes interseeded into sweet corn. Hartl , W. Influence of undersown clovers on weeds and on the yield of winter wheat in organic farming.

Lentner , M. Experimental Design and Analysis. Liebman , M. Crop rotation and intercropping strategies for weed management. Crop diversification for weed management. Ecological Management of Agricultural Weeds. New York Cambridge University Press.

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Mechanical management of weeds. Nordell , E. Crop rotations today. Small Farm J. Rauch , B. Using common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia control as a basis for reduction of fomesafen use in snap and dry beans Phaseolus vulgaris 21 : — Weed Technol. Sawma , J.

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Evaluating seed viability by an unimbibed seed crush test with comparison to the tetrazolium test. Sumner , D. Crop rotation and plant productivity. Thurston , J. The effect of competition from cereal crops on the germination and growth of Avena fatua in a naturally infested field. Walenta , D. Vernalization response of plants grown from spikelets of spring and fall cohorts of jointed goatgrass. Recommend this journal. No concerns about digital literacy arose during the focus group sessions, so discussion centered more on Internet access and use. Participants said that they, and most of their family members and acquaintances, had reliable access to the Internet, typically through their smartphones.

Participants expanded on how they accessed the Internet using their smartphones, emphasizing that they found free WiFi in public spaces such as restaurants, libraries, and schools and typically used their smartphones many times a day for "really short" bouts of time online. Participants indicated that the asynchronous accessibility of smartphone-based learning might mitigate barriers associated with attending traditional classroom-based education opportunities, such as lack of transportation, variable work schedules, and lack of childcare.

E-Learning Nutrition Education Program for Low-Income Adults: Perspectives of Key Stakeholders

That would eliminate [the problem of not having] transportation, you know, so having [Food eTalk] on your phone would definitely be a plus for a lot of the women or men. The second major theme, which arose from our aim to explore focus group participants' content preferences, related to program engagement. This was an inductive theme, as it emerged from participant-led discussion during the focus group sessions.

Essentially, the strongest finding we encountered when exploring preferences of content among the participants was their concern that people may have very little motivation to engage in a voluntary nutrition education e-learning program and that featuring desirable content or mandating the program for SNAP beneficiaries may be key ways to increase engagement.

Participants verbalized concerns that people would not engage in Food eTalk because of limitations on time, lack of interest, "laziness," and low perceived susceptibility to nutrition-related health issues. They suggested tailoring Food eTalk content to the specific interests and needs of the priority audience as the best way to increase program engagement. Suggested subject matter for content included food-related topics that garner media attention as well as nutrition plans for ameliorating diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and weight loss.

Additionally, both groups of SNAP-Ed—eligible interviewees discussed concerns about food safety and food production systems and expressed confusion about these topics. As another means for mitigating potentially low motivation to engage in e-learning nutrition education, both peer educators and SNAP-Ed—eligible Georgians discussed the idea of establishing government mandates related to nutrition education for SNAP beneficiaries and suggested that taking such action would be a plausible and effective way to ensure engagement in Food eTalk.

There were no noteworthy differences in the findings between peer educators and SNAP-Ed—eligible focus group participants. This lack of variation was generally expected as the model of employing peer educators encourages that these individuals live within the communities of the SNAP-Ed—eligible audiences served. A pragmatic first step for determining the feasibility of an online e-learning nutrition education program tailored to the needs of SNAP-Ed—eligible Georgians was to understand Internet accessibility from the perspective of the priority audience.


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  8. Literature has suggested that low-income individuals have increasing access to the Internet Pew Research Center, ; Smith, , and this suggestion is indeed supported by our findings. Though they also were asked about digital literacy, participants in our focus groups had no concerns that lack of digital literacy would be a barrier to participation in e-learning opportunities. Design theory related to online learning, such as e-learning and m-learning mobile learning , highlights the importance of determining which device is most commonly used among targeted learners Koole, ; Moore et al.

    Given that one of the most common devices used by SNAP-Ed—eligible Georgians to access the Internet is a mobile smartphone, m-learning design should support Food eTalk development. M-learning design theory suggests that short educational lessons that are easy to stop and start frequently best serve the audience as this format likely aligns best with the way most people typically use their smartphones Koole, As is the nature of qualitative research, inductive findings often emerge, and in our study the topic of "content" was overshadowed by study participants' concerns about lack of motivation to engage in Food eTalk.

    Two primary ways to increase motivation arose from the focus group discussions: tailoring content to intentionally pique interest of the intended audience and mandating the program for SNAP beneficiaries. Our focus group findings indicate that the priority audience desires more in-depth nutrition information, including information on potentially controversial nutrition topics, disease-specific diet education, and "hot topics" in nutrition. Increased access to information through the Internet allows SNAP-Ed—eligible individuals who traditionally may have had limited access to information countless opportunities to access nutrition-related information and misinformation.

    The topics related to food safety and food production systems discussed by the SNAP-Ed—eligible participants in our focus groups have large online presences through social media and food-related documentaries. Access to misinformation by this potentially vulnerable audience only strengthens the need for evidence-based online nutrition education resources focused on similar topics.

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    Further, inclusion of audience-driven content of interest may serve to enhance target audience members' motivation to engage in a voluntary e-learning program. It is important for Extension educators and the policy makers Extension personnel may influence to recognize that provision of unbiased, evidence-based nutrition education on controversial topics in which the audience is interested would likely increase program engagement and strengthen the impact of the SNAP-Ed program for its beneficiaries.

    Moreover, nutrition education literature and health behavior change theory support the idea that nutrition education is more effective when it intrinsically motivates and inspires learners so that knowledge leads to nutrition-related behavior change Contento, Careful consideration of the format of and content in a voluntary e-learning nutrition education program tailored for SNAP-Ed—eligible adults is crucial for increasing the program's potential for success. Findings from our study with the Food eTalk prototype were used to inform further development of the e-learning program.

    Specifically, we carefully built in external motivating incentives, and we redesigned the entire interface of the program as mobile-first so that the program would be best optimized on a smartphone. Though the sample size in our study was small, our findings are part of a larger case study addressing needs assessment, development, and evaluation aspects of the Food eTalk program Stotz et al.

    Our research may help Extension professionals who have interest in e-learning for limited-income audiences during the preliminary steps of developing an e-learning education program. Next steps include conducting rigorous formative and outcomes evaluation to establish the evidence base for Food eTalk. Atkinson, N. Assessment of the nutrition and physical activity education needs of low-income, rural mothers: Can technology play a role?

    RACGP - Smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity (SNAP)

    Journal of Community Health , 32 4 , — Au, L. Online and in-person nutrition education improves breakfast knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors: A randomized trial of participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics , 3 , — Case, P. Online nutrition education: Enhancing opportunities for limited-resource learners. Are learners ready for online nutrition education?

    Charmaz, K. Constructing grounded theory 2nd ed. Contento, I. Nutrition education: Linking theory, research and practice 2nd ed.